Adrenal Glands (Total 200955 Papers Found)

Pheochromocytomas, intra-adrenal paraganglioma, and extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic paragangliomas are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal chromaffin cells or similar cells in extra-adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. Serious morbidity and mortality rates associated with these tumors are related to the potent effects of catecholamines on various organs, especially those of the cardiovascular system. Before any surgical procedure is done, preope ...
CONTEXT A broad analysis of adrenal gland-derived 19-carbon (C19) steroids has not been reported. This is the first study that uses liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to quantify 9 C19 steroids (androgens and their precursors), estrone, and estradiol in the adrenal vein (AV) of women, before and after ACTH stimulation. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to define the adrenal androgen metabolome in women before and after ACTH infusion. DESIGN This was a retrospective study. ...
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders. It comprises a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by the deficiency of one of four steroidogenic enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis or in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) that serves as electron donor to steroidogenic cytochrome P450 (CYP) type II enzymes. The biochemical and clinical phenotype depends on the specific enzymatic defect and the impairment of specific e ...
BACKGROUND There is few data on what constitutes the distribution of metastatic sites in prostate cancer (PCa). The aim of our study was to systematically describe the most common sites of metastases in a contemporary cohort of PCa patients. METHODS Patients with metastatic PCa were abstracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1998-2010). Most common metastatic sites within the entire population were described. Stratification was performed according to the presence of single or multiple ( ...
The triple A syndrome is a complex and multisystemic autosomal recessive disease with the 3 main symptoms of adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, and achalasia accompanied by neurological impairment. Mutations in the AAAS gene on chromosome 12q13 are responsible for the disorder. AAAS encodes a protein named ALADIN, which belongs to the family of WD-repeat-containing proteins and has been shown to localize to nuclear pore complexes. The function of the protein is not clear. It is supposed that ALADI ...
The etiopathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) remains poorly understood. Although neuroendocrine disturbances - and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hypofunction in particular - have been found in a large proportion of CFS patients, it is not clear whether these disturbances are cause or consequence of the illness. After a review of the available evidence we hypothesize that that HPA axis hypofunction in CFS, conceptualized within a system-biological perspective, primarily refl ...
Postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (Clinovir) in dosages between 500 and 1500 mg orally per day. The relation of MPA plasma concentrations and endocrine effects were studied in a longitudinal fashion. MPA exerted suppressive effects on the basal and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulated gonadotropin secretion, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and estradiol (E2) in a dose-dependent manner leading to a comple ...
The "prohormone thiol protease" (PTP) from adrenal medullary chromaffin granules has been demonstrated as a novel cysteine protease that converts the model enkephalin precursor, ([35S]Met)-preproenkephalin, to appropriate enkephalin related peptide products [Krieger, T. J., & Hook, V. Y. H. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 8376-8383; Kreiger, T. J., Mende-Mueller, L., & Hook, V. Y. H. (1992) J. Neurochem. 59, 26-31; Azaryan, A. V., & Hook, V. Y. H. (1994) FEBS Lett. 341, 197-202]. In this report, PTP ...
Lung cancer is the second most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. Moreover, despite advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the death rate from lung cancer remains high and the reported overall five-year survival rate is only 15%. Thus, novel treatments for this devastating disease are urgently needed. Chemokines, a family of 48 chemotactic cytokines interacts with their 7 transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors, to guide immune ce ...
BACKGROUND A dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as an important pathogenic factor in depression. Genetic variants of FKBP5, a protein of the HPA system modulating the glucocorticoid receptor, have been reported to be genetically associated with improved response to medical treatment and an increase of depressive episodes. METHODS We examined three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5, rs4713916 in the proposed promoter region, rs1360780 ...
Animals transgenic (Tg) for reporter genes would be useful to following a given cell lineage during differentiation and regeneration processes. Here, we established a beta-galactosidase (lacZ) Tg rat to use as a tool for regenerative research. Strong lacZ expression was observed in the skeletal muscles, myocardium, pancreas, and skin obtained from these lacZ-Tg rats, and moderate lacZ expression was observed in the liver, spleen, kidney, and cartilage. In contrast, brain, vessels, lung, adrenal ...
PRL receptor gene expression was visualized in various tissues by in situ hybridization, using 35S-labeled probes unique to each form of receptor. Tissues were removed rapidly from adult male and female rats and placed in liquid nitrogen. Cryostat sections (10 microns) were prepared, fixed, pretreated, and dehydrated before incubation with the various probes. Hybridization was performed overnight, after which the slides were first exposed to autoradiographic film and then dipped in nuclear emuls ...
Opsoclonus-myoclonus, a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that may occur in patients with neuroblastoma, is thought to be a humorally mediated immune reaction to malignant cells that cross-react with autoantigens. This report describes the case of an occult neuroblastoma diagnosed in a 4-year-old female 2 years after presentation of opsoclonus-myoclonus. Although no mass was evident on previous imaging at an interval of 10 months, a computed tomographic scan 4 months after rituximab treatment and 20 ...
PURPOSE Concurrent adrenalectomy during renal surgery for renal cell carcinoma was once routine. More recent data suggest that adrenalectomy should be reserved for tumors 7 cm or greater, particularly those involving the upper pole. We evaluated the radiographic and pathological incidence of adrenal involvement in patients undergoing renal surgery for renal cell carcinoma 7 cm or greater. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients who underwent renal surgery for tumors 7 cm or greater between 1999 and 200 ...
The purpose of this study was to document circulating concentrations of corticosterone in the plasma in relation to the ovarian follicular cycle in animals in the field and to examine the effects of captivity and laboratory manipulations on plasma corticosterone in the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus uniparens. In nature, circulating concentrations of corticosterone are highest in previtellogenic individuals when concentrations of progesterone are basal and estradiol-17 beta is und ...
An 80-year-old women consulted a physician because of weight loss and slight fever. Since a large retroperitoneal tumor was found, the patient was referred to our hospital. Based on abdominal computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests, preoperative diagnosis was non-functioning left adrenal tumor, 13 cm in diameter. Preoperative abdominal angiography revealed that the tumor was supplied blood by the left adrenal artery, left renal artery through left renal upper segment, spl ...
CRITCHLOW, V., R. A. LIEBELT, M. BAR-SELA, W. MOUNTCASTLE, AND H. S. LIPSCOMB. Sex dijerence in resting pituitaryadrenal function in the rat. Am. J. Physiol. 205(5): 807-815. I g63.-Resting levels of plasma and adrenal corticosteroids, pituitary content of adrenocorticotropin, and circulating leukocytes were determined at intervals during controlled 24-hr light-dark cycles in intact, castrated, sham-castrated adult and prepubertal male and female rats. To study the influence of environmental lig ...
The histogenesis of a distinctive metastasizing intramural gastric tumor found in patients with extra-adrenal paragangliomas, pulmonary chondromas, or both, is unknown. By light microscopy, it has appeared to be of smooth-muscle derivation, and it has been interpreted as being epithelioid leiomyosarcoma. For further clues to its nature, we studied three examples by electron microscopy (two obtained from patients with extra-adrenal paragangliomas and one from a patient with pulmonary chondroma). ...
Recent reports demonstrate that the 19-nor-corticosteroids (19-nor-DOC) are naturally-occurring substances in hypertensive animal models as well as man. Since some 19-nor-corticosteroids are potent mineralocorticoids, they may have a role in regulating systemic arterial pressure and be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. This paper reports the probable biosynthetic pathway, factors regulating the secretion or production, and measurement of 19-nor-DOC in man and the spontaneously hypert ...
Glucose tolerance and the behaviour of cortisol during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was investigated in 126 patients with adrenal "incidentalomas" (age: > 45 years) and in 129 age-matched controls. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was found to be more common (p < 0.02) among patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Subdividing these patients by their body weight it was found that 29% (controls: 25%) of those with normal body weight (BMI 20 - 25 kg/m2) had IGT/DM. In overweight (BMI 2 ...
Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is fundamental for subtype diagnosis in patients with primary aldosteronism. AVS protocols vary between centers, especially for diagnostic indices and for use of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. We investigated the role of both continuous ACTH infusion and bolus on the performance and interpretation of AVS in a sample of 76 patients with confirmed primary aldosteronism. In 36 primary aldosteronism patients, AVS was performed both under basal conditions ...
Distinct histochemical and ultrastructural signs of a steroid hormone synthesis are found in the sexually mature cock, particularly in the ductuli efferentes proximales of the main part of the epididymis and in the blind ends of the ductuli aberrantes of the appendix epididymidis. These signs are more distinct in the appendix epididymidis of the capon since the blind ends of the ductuli aberrantes transform into steroid sex hormone producing noduli epididymidis after they sprout out intensively ...
Although inhibin was first identified as a hormone regulating pituitary FSH secretion, it was later recognized to act as a tumor suppressor in the gonad and adrenal glands. Recently, the alpha subunit of this dimeric hormone (inhibin‑α) was reported to be involved in prostate tumorigenesis. To identify additional roles outside the reproductive axis, we investigated inhibin‑α gene activity and subsequent cell fate in human gastric cancer cells. The results were as follows: all the gastric c ...
INTRODUCTION Megestrol acetate (MA) is a progestational agent used for palliation of breast and endometrial cancer. The drug promotes weight gain via appetite stimulation. This property has led to widespread use in patients with wasting illnesses. Increasing numbers of reports suggest glucocorticoid activity. OBJECTIVE Unrecognized adrenal suppression may result from MA use. This is the first study to examine the prevalence of adrenal suppression in hospitalized patients treated with MA. SUB ...
We present the first cross-sectional organ weight reference standards for captive baboons (Papio hamadryas). Organ weight data were obtained from necropsy reports for 634 healthy, pedigreed, captive female and male baboons. From summary statistics we calculated and fit cross-sectional, sex-specific percentile curves for: adrenals, brain, eyes, heart, kidneys, liver plus gall bladder, lungs, pancreas, pituitary gland, spleen, and thyroid gland in two year age class intervals and summary statistic ...
We have reviewed 58 patients on whom adrenal scintigraphy has been performed using 75Se selenonorcholestenol. For 15 patients whose adrenal function was biochemically normal, the upper limit of normal of the 7 day adrenal uptake test was 0.45%, considerably higher than the generally accepted value of 0.3%. There is evidence from this group of patients that stress and obesity might account for uptakes in the range 0.3-0.45%. The sensitivity of the uptake test is poor, with 7 out of 23 patients wi ...
OBJECTIVE To describe the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of the effect of corticosteroids in a patient with late septic shock. DESIGN Case report. SETTING The medical intensive care unit at University Medical Center Utrecht. PATIENT An 86-yr-old female patient with late septic shock requiring mechanical ventilation and vasopressive agents. INTERVENTIONS Administration of hydrocortisone, 300 mg daily. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Within 3 days of corticosteroid treatment, the p ...
Binding of [3H]triamcinolone acetonide (TA) was examined to evaluate possible differences in biochemical and pharmacological profiles of a ligand binding domain on the naive glucocorticoid (GC) receptor complex between cytosol fractions of brain and liver obtained from the rat with intact adrenals. Unlabeled TA was 3-times less potent in displacing [3H]TA binding at equilibrium in the presence of Na2MoO4 at 2 degrees C in brain than in liver, while dexamethasone was more than 15-times more poten ...
PURPOSE To estimate the efficacy of the laparoscopic radical nephrectomy we analyzed the clinical data of our series. PATIENTS AND METHODS One hundred eighty five patients were enrolled in our laparoscopic radical nephrectomy program between July, 1992 and July, 2001. Of the 185 patients, 146 had small renal tumors (smaller than 5 cm in diameter) and 39 had large tumors (equal to or more than, 5 cm in diameter). Under a laparoscope the kidney, adrenal gland, and perirenal fatty tissue were dis ...
A new hydrocortisone tablet, which contains a coating for immediate drug release and a core for extended release, improved metabolic status in patients with adrenal insufficiency in a phase II/III study. Patients with adrenal insufficiency treated with hydrocortisone are at increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. “A cortisol exposure-time profile might be as important as the actual dose for the outcome of patients,” says Gudmundur Johannsson, one of the investigators. The study, funded ...
Aire-deficient mice are a model of the human monogenic disorder autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I) characterized by a progressive autoimmune destruction of multiple endocrine glands such as the adrenal cortex, the parathyroids and the beta-cells of the pancreas. The disease is caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, a putative transcription factor expressed in thymic medullary epithelial cells and in antigen-presenting cells of the myeloid lineage in peripheral ...
BACKGROUND Pheochromocytoma is a rare catecholamine-producing tumor with an estimated incidence of less than 0.1% in the global population. We present a case of cystic pheochromocytoma that was diagnosed as an incidental finding. The patient presented with abdominal pain and had a history of hypertension. CASE REPORT A 64-year-old man with hypertension presented with a clinical history of intermittent abdominal pain for one year. He denied sweating, palpitations, headache or back pain. He was fo ...
BACKGROUND The use of minimally invasive techniques in the surgical treatment of adrenal masses has been used to remove a wide variety of adrenal tumors. AIMS We have reviewed our experience with laparoscopic adrenalectomy and compared laparoscopic vs. open surgical approach. METHODS The outcome of 35 consecutive patients who underwent adrenalectomy over a 3-year period has been analyzed retrospectively. Differences in operating time, blood loss, period of hospitalization, use of parenteral ...
To investigate whether chronic endogenous hypercortisolism might alter adrenomedullary phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase activity, we measured epinephrine/norepinephrine (E/NE) ratios in the adrenal venous blood of 8 patients undergoing surgery for Cushing's syndrome and in 12 control subjects undergoing surgery for left kidney diseases. To investigate the adrenomedullary secretory activity in Cushing's syndrome, we measured basal E plasma levels in 24 patients and 32 age- and sex-matched n ...
The effects of the clinically most commonly used minor tranquilizer, diazepam, on the survival time and on the mechanism of death in non-acclimated and cold-acclimated guinea pigs in severe cold exposure (− 20°C) were studied. Cold acclimation for 2 months increased the average survival time from 4h to 10 h. The lowest rectal temperature at death (14.6° C) was seen in the cold-acclimated animals. Diazepam at a dose of 5 or 15 mg/kg i.p. 30 min before the beginning of the exposure reduced dos ...
  • Shiro Baba,
  • Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • 1977
ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECT OF SPIRONOLACTONE I. STUDIES ON SPIRONOLACTONE-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN THE PLASMA HORMONAL PATTERNS Shiro Baba Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan (Director: Prof. Hiroshi Tazaki.) Spironolactone, an aldosterone antagonist has an antiandrogenic effect by potentially inhibiting some enzymatic steps in androgen synthesis in testes and adrenals. In order to clarify the site and mode of the antiandrogenic action of spironolactone in vivo, spi ...
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is an endogenous hormone of adrenal zona glomerulosa cells and is released in response to stimulation by agonists such as angiotensin II (Ang II). It stimulates the release of aldosterone from cultured bovine adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. These studies were designed to determine whether this steroidogenic effect of PGE2 was mediated by an EP1, EP2, or EP3 receptor. Prostaglandin E2 and 11-deoxy PGE1, an EP2-selective agonist, stimulated aldosterone release in a concentr ...
21-hydroxylase deficiency was described as a fatal disease in infancy manifested by severe adrenal insufficiency with lack of differentiation of the external genitalia in males. Patients are in adrenal insufficiency or receiving long term corticosteroid therapy and are unable to respond normally to surgery or other forms of stress. Therefore, supplementation with corticosteroids and various regimens are required for surgery and anesthetic management. A 3 year 10 months correction of 6] old pheno ...